Reflecting on Teaching Models and Second Life

In deciding to learn more about Second Life, my first thought wasn’t decided on a specific platform but more to research the use of 3D learning spaces for library use. The literature currently available overwhelmingly mentioned Second Life, and thus I’ve decided that it would be a good place to start.

Second Life, as I have mentioned in previous posts, is still used by various tertiary institutions and feature impressive digital library collections. Volunteer Librarians still maintain an active presence, with Forums and Google+ communities a rich source of information.

Preparing for design-based research, I need to understand transformational teaching. As suggested to our NGL group, the R.A.T framework is useful for determining the place of technology in teaching as measured against ‘replacement’, ‘amplification’ and ‘transformation’. Since I have already written a post about the R.A.T framework, I am interested in the Community of Inquiry Model as it relates to Second Life.

The Community of Inquiry Model “represents a process of creating a deep and meaningful (collaborative-constructivist) learning experience through the development of three interdependent elements – social, cognitive and teaching presence” (CoI Model | CoI, 2017).

Image courtesy of Creative Commons search

Burgess, Slate, Rojas-LeBouef & LaPrairie (2010) state that “in an educational context”, Second Life “provides a space for constructivist learning, socialization, exploration, discovery, and creativity. The communicative, social nature of virtual learning allows students to demonstrate the skills and strategies they have acquired through utilization of social technology tools. This applied, situated learning environment has great potential — especially in online distance learning”.

Thus, in examining the Community of Inquiry model and Second Life against the social, cognitive and teaching presence, I summarise it as such:

Social presence: students participating in Second Life, can express their emotions and ideas without fear. Whether it is because they are uncomfortable expression their opinions in a physical ‘real’ class or because they might fear ‘retribution’ from classmates on sensitive topics. The idea of a 3D learning space such as Second Life is to encourage collaboration and general interconnection, and provide those unable to travel to physical classrooms with the same quality learning experience.

Cognitive presence: a networked and global learning community would benefit from using Second Life for the exchange of information, connection of ideas and be able to apply the newly learnt knowledge in their everyday ‘real’ life occupations.

Teaching presence: teaching in Second Life enable discussion on various topics that does not refrain physically disabled students from attending lectures. Understanding of concepts can be build ‘face-to-face’ as lecturer and student avatars are able to simulate ‘real’ life communications. Instruction is direct and the student/teacher relationships can benefit from this type of setting.

This YouTube video by the University of Texas on Education in Second Life is already a decade old but gives a good overview of what attending a lecture in Second Life looks like:


Burgess, M., Slate, J., Rojas-LeBouef, A., & LaPrairie, K. (2010). Teaching and learning in Second Life: Using the Community of Inquiry (CoI) model to support online instruction with graduate students in instructional technology. The Internet And Higher Education, 13(1-2), 84-88.

CoI Model | CoI. (2017). Retrieved 8 September 2017, from



As a student, participation in NGL was useful for me

For me the Student, NGL is a fascinating and useful area. I’m not new to networked and global learning as my undergraduate degree was in Internet Communications but in my opinion, NGL is not a topic of study that ever can be considered ‘done’.

Being given the opportunity during this unit to learn something new, on a topic of our own choice, was excellent. In my work as a Librarian, the shift towards 3D learning spaces are gaining momentum, and I have found it useful to learn about Second Life, and especially looking at the different pedagogical models. Researching about Second Life saw me turning to my most reliable professional network – Google+ communities – and have joined a library community associated with Second Life. I was pleasantly surprised to find that it was still an active community although Second Life is not as popular a 3D learning space as it was between 2006-2011 (Floyd & Frank, 2012).

I cannot say that this particular blog-style of learning, outside of a formal learning management system is ideal for me. I have found it with times confusing as to where to find the course material, and did feel isolated from the peer network as I cannot ‘attend’ the live lectures. I have found it frustrating that there has been no direct links to the other students’ blogs, and thus had to trail through Lauren and Samanthi‘s blogs to find links to the others. Maybe the addition of a Google+ community or a Facebook group to this unit might have helped our little group of students to get to know each better? It might have stimulated more participation as the infrastructure of social media allows for more spontaneous conversations.

Feeling a bit hesitant to be too critical about the infrastructure in which NGL are presented in this unit, I reminded myself that Selwyn (2014) encourage critical analysis when it comes to the use of technology in education. Not all technologies will achieve the desired outcome, and thus it is important that educators look at what learning outcomes needs to be satisfied within the curriculum, and from there investigate what technologies would match the needs of the students.

Having the option to listen to the lecture recordings are extremely helpful. Not being able to attend the ‘live’ lectures, it is reassuring to know that Chris record the session for those of us that cannot attend regularly. Time constraints unfortunately impacted peer-participation in NGL but as Riel and Pollin (2004) conveyed, it is best practice to learn to be an intentional participant and re-adjust our thinking and make concentrated efforts to collaborate and engage with our NGL peers. Thus, my lunch break became part of my PKM routine, where I’d read through my fellow students’ latest posts and formulate my own draft posts.

Transparency in NGL is a real challenge. Through the years, I have preferred to use an alias for blogging but as I progressed through my studies, it has become necessary to be more open and transparent about what I do, and what I would like to achieve. I have learned that in a NGL community, you cannot build trust and collaboration for the long term, when you are called gamermom72 and the other people range from piresjubas to trapgodtrippen. I don’t know what happened to the other people but gamermom72 still exist on Instagram. At the time it seemed a good idea to have this sort of account to learn what games my kids are playing, and also because it was fun experimenting with bitmojis.

As Kop (2011) found in her study on open learning networks, participants expressed the need for “a sense of trust” and the need to be “comfortable and confident to be able to participate”. In my experience, I didn’t feel comfortable communicating with various alias in Instagram but my Google+ communities, where we all use our real names, is a different situation. We all share information, and learn from each other. I do think in this unit of NGL us students have not communicated optimally, and  still believe that the addition of a social media platform would have been beneficial, but the fact that we all know each others’ names and professional backgrounds have helped to establish a certain ‘quiet’ respect and we have participated as much as our time constraints allowed.


Floyd, J., & Frank, I. (2012). New immersive worlds for educators and librarians: beyond Second Life. Library Hi Tech News, 29(6), 11-15.

Kop, R. (2011). The challenges to connectivist learning on open online networks: Learning experiences during a massive open online course. Retrieved 6 September 2017, from

Riel, M., & Polin, L. (2004). Online learning communities: Common ground and critical differences in designing technical environments. In S. A. Barab, R. Kling, & J. Gray (Eds.), Designing for Virtual Communities in the Service of Learning (pp. 16–50). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Selwyn, N. (2014). Technology and education: why it’s crucial to be critical. Retrieved from,


How NGL can inform my role as teacher

Looking at Librarians in the teaching space requires a different frame of mind. We are not necessarily Teacher Librarians, but we are educators of digital literacy, information literacy skills and we stand firmly as the bridge that aims to overcome the digital divide in our communities.

I am proud to call myself a Librarian. Yes, there are those that perceive us to be stereo-typical little ol’ ladies with glasses and cardigans but truth be told, we are that and so much more .. as you can see from this clip below of staff from the National Library of Australia performing Thriller at the 2008 staff Christmas party.

We are not (always) bound by the normal constraints of educational curriculums and thus can be inventive and creative in our approach to teaching. Looking at my own ‘role as teacher’, I will use the R.A.T framework to gauge the impact of NGL on my teaching. The R.A.T framework was developed by Dr. Joan Hughes in 1998 as a tool for self-assessment in utilising technology as a teaching tool.

The R.A.T model .. cannot be bribed with cheese.

NGL is a Librarian’s playground. We connect globally to research emerging technologies, learn new tips and trick from our colleagues abroad and we find ways to incorporate our newly acquired knowledge within our professional teaching spaces, all the while adapting it to our needs.

In researching how Second Life can be utilised to promote digital collections and open repositories, I am also looking at how 3D virtual spaces can be incorporated within ‘real life’ curriculums. Students are used to accessing virtual learning spaces, like Moodle and Blackboard but the 3D virtual learning space is unfamiliar territory in most Australian University libraries.

Pinchot and Paullet (2014) says that visual, auditory and kinesthetic learning styles benefit from learning through the use of technology and that curriculum developers should aim to include more aids to cater for those areas.

Breaking my thoughts ‘as teacher’ down into the R.A.T model, I propose that 3D virtual learning spaces has a lot to offer those learners more visually inclined. Many virtual learning spaces are already able to handle cross-platform collaboration, and 3D spaces are sure to follow suit.

‘R’ – Replacement: More options for students to collaborate online, and the option for students to incorporate a range of aids within their assignments. As an educator/Librarian, my knowledge of different platforms help students to think of different ways of presenting assessments by incorporating different technological elements.

‘A’ – Amplification: This is where I think 3D learning spaces will excel as the option for immersion into the environment can bring a new dimension of exploring learning material to the curriculum. In Second Life, full libraries have been replicated and ordinary museum exhibitions are amplified as historical characters come to ‘life’. To date I haven’t had the opportunity to prepare materials for a 3D learning space but it is a goal I am working towards.

‘T’ – Transformation: Presenting students with material in a format other than summarised text, give them the opportunity to memorise more facts. I often create visual material for my son’s classes in preparation for exams. The teacher presents me with a word document, and I then restructure the content to fit visual aids, source images through Creative Commons and build the students a multimedia site.

In my role as ‘teacher’, I value the importance of networked and global learning. Not only because I find multiple sources of inspiration but because it offers me connections to knowledge across the globe. NGL offers me the opportunity to research what other libraries are doing abroad. Referring to Second Life again, the collaboration of hundreds of volunteer Librarians, saw the creation of the Community Virtual Library.

Academic libraries in Australia was not so enthusiastic about building digital collections within Second Life. The University of Western Australia however did built exhibitions in Second Life but in 2008, overall the idea of Second Life was considered a virtual failure.

Forwarding ten years, I believe 3D learning spaces are about to be embraced by higher education providers, and I for one wants to be part of the educational revolution. In my opinion, learning about Second Life is a good place for me to start in understanding where the idea of transmedia collaborations in education can take us.


Hughes, J., Thomas, R., & Scharber, C. (2006). Assessing Technology Integration: The RAT – Replacement, Amplification, and Transformation – Framework. In C. Crawford, R. Carlsen, K. McFerrin, J. Price, R. Weber, & D. A. Willis (Eds.), Society for Information Technology & Teacher Education International Conference 2006 (pp. 1616–1620). Orlando, Florida: AACE. Retrieved from

Pinchot, J., & Paullet, K. (2014). Different Keystrokes for Different Folks: Addressing Learning Styles in Online Education. Information Systems Education Journal, 12(2), 29-37. Retrieved from


NGL – a Learning Journey without Borders

As week 5 marks the week for reflecting on what I still need to learn about NGL in preparation for assignment 2, I came to the conclusion that it’s a never-ending journey. Yes, there are set readings and tasks that fulfil the immediate requirements but looking at NGL as a whole, there will never be an ‘end’.

As far as learning more about NGL, it is in my opinion a journey. Either you love it and it becomes a life-long passion, or you wish for the course to finish. Fortunately for me, NGL has always been in the mix of my emerging technology interests, and thus will never be a hardship.

American scholar, Henry Jenkins is of great inspiration to me and I have read many of his works on participatory and convergence culture. As a ‘learner’, Professor Jenkins’ way of using transmedia storytelling greatly appeals to me, thus keeping me the ‘student’ enthralled enough to keep coming back for more.

Which brings me to how I am looking to approach assignment 2. As an ‘educator’, I can see great benefits in utilising the transmedia approach, and in a sense, it is NGL at its finest. Robot Heart Stories (watch below) was created as a learning experience that used networked collaboration between two classrooms, separated by two continents to use creative ways to help a robot find her spaceship to return home. Unfortunately, links to the creators of the learning experience does not work anymore but I have first read about it on Professor Jenkins’ blog, and that link is still intact.

Being a Librarian, I don’t directly ‘teach’ students as such. I consider myself more of an educator that guide those seeking information. I have always found visual materials to work best when conveying information, probably because I’m a visual learner myself. Mithell’s undergraduate learning experiences observes the technological changes in teaching, and it reiterates my believe that transmedia storytelling can help address a range of learning styles.

Learning more about Second Life fits within my plans as I approach assignment 2, but as I have experienced to date, the navigational learning curve is quite steep. Being an ‘older’ type of 3D virtual space, it feels clunky but it is still effective and the libraries built within Second Life is quite impressive. Stanford University has extensive virtual archives, as well as a Rare Books Division in Second Life that is worth exploring.

In order for me to remain on task for completing assignment 1 and preparing for assignment 2, I have worked out a ‘schema‘ for myself. I need to look at alternative perceptions of NGL, and compare that to my current understanding of NGL, and draw conclusions or fill in the blanks so to speak. Piaget‘s theory of cognitive development explains this process in more detail, but it is basically the same principle of making sense of your experiences from your learning environment, and then adjust your ideas according to what you have learnt.

Feature Image created with ‘Gliffy’


As a learner, participation in NGL was useful to me

“Discovering Second Life”

I have always been fascinated by emerging technologies and have chosen to research 3D virtual learning environments as my learning activity for NGL. Study spaces are continuing to evolve, and as I have discovered, magnificent libraries have been built within Second Life.

Researching academic articles, I have found that a fair bit of articles have been published about libraries within Second Life, and quite a vibrant online community of real-world libraries are collaborating in this 3D virtual world. Some researchers consider Second Life to be a dated concept, and have raised questions about its nonexistent cross-platform capabilities but since 3D learning spaces are completely new to me, I thought it a good idea to start my learning journey towards 3D learning space expertise with Second Life.

The first thing I have learned is that Second Life requires viewer software to be downloaded onto your computer. It required around 1GB of space and a reliable internet connection .. with an ‘Important Notes’ section stating it is not compatible with dial-up internet. Technically, I don’t have dial-up internet but I am on the NBN and currently that speed quite often equals dial-up speed!

It is free to join and explore but to build a library, you must provide real money in exchange for Second Life’s currency called Linden dollars. Since this is a learning journey (and I’m frugal), no money will exchange virtual hands!

After creating my ‘Avatar’, a free ‘people’ version called Amy, I tried to venture into Second Life. I say tried because navigating is definitely a ‘learning to drive’ experience. Think Minecraft vs. Mario Kart. I’m incompetent in both according to my son! I have chosen my screen name to be Cyberspace Librarian, and upon first entering you ‘land’ in front of a tutorial board. Which I would have read in more detail weren’t I offered my first bite by a vampire.

I kindly declined the offer.
I haven’t stayed much longer in Second Life after that brief ‘conversation’. Mainly because I was ran over by a Pegasus. Unfortunately that was too quick and I couldn’t get a screenshot. So, what have I learned from my first venture into Second Life?
As a ‘learner’, it is clear that there’s a steep learning curve to navigating around Second Life, and it will take more than a handful of sessions to become adept in travelling virtually around this world. I am enjoying this learning activity quite a fair bit even though navigation is not straight forward.  I do however wonder how much time must have been spent by students attending lectures in Second Life before they felt comfortable utilising it?
As a ‘learner’, I can see the value of utilising Second Life because of the nature of the beast – so to speak. It is captivating and students that are already used to computer games will find it fun to attend lectures in this type of virtual setting. If I were a school teacher, I would probably not encourage the use of it seeing that my first encounter was with a vampire!
Researching literature in preparation for assignment 2, I came across various opinions and observations on utilising Second Life as a 3D learning space.  Mon (2012) studied the impact of “avatar-mediated communication” on the professionalism of librarians, and found that in creating avatars, librarians still prefer to portray themselves as similar to their real-life appearances. On the other hand, Webber and Nahl (2011) said that librarians are more concerned about establishing communication and trust in their Second Life library, exactly as they would in their physical library space.
Mon (2012) found that librarians built their virtual libraries to look similar to those in real life because even virtual patrons still perceive books to be the key to knowledge, even though picking up a book in Second Life could be designed to link to an outside web source.  What I found quite interesting was that Mon (2012) after an interview with a librarian, quoted her in saying that “when I once provided volunteer reference service, someone created a very futuristic looking reference desk. The funny thing was, no one ever used it. Not librarians. Not patrons”.
Taking all these points into consideration, I do think the idea of a 3D virtual space would appeal to students and teachers alike. I can see a real benefit for students with disabilities that prevent them from travelling to traditional libraries and classrooms. In a 3D learning space, they will be able to browse texts and attend lectures, exhibitions and access a community of like-minded individuals.  In conclusion, I might not ever use my new-found knowledge of Second Life to build a digital collection there, but through this learning activity, I have acquired a good understanding of 3D learning spaces within a networked and global learning community.

Mon, L. (2012). Professional avatars: librarians and educators in virtual worlds. Journal of Documentation, 68(3), 318-329.

Webber, S., & Nahl, D. (2011). Sustaining learning for LIS through use of a virtual world. IFLA Journal, 37(1), 5-15.


Online Learning Communities

This week, our reading by Riel and Polin (2004), focus on Online Learning Communities and discusses the various types of learning communities and the community dimensions associated with it.  To summarise it briefly, I have created this image to explain:

In my opinion, our little group of NGL members are a task-based community of learning, as we’re all working towards a common goal – which is to complete another unit towards our degrees. However, Riel and Polin (2004) defines the membership as one where members knows each other, and since we’re all online students, we actually don’t personally know each other – more a case of we know about each other. So, while our group within NGL fit the description for task-based, we also fit the description for practice-based, in that we don’t know each other personally but we are all seeking to become more experienced within our chosen professions. My fellow NGL group member Samanthi, place our group somewhere within a Practice-based and Knowledge-based community, as she views our connection to be strongly linked to our professions.

For my learning activity, I have chosen to learn more about Second Life, as I have mentioned in my previous post. Second Life is a 3D virtual world that are already been utilised by various organisations for online collaboration, networking and training spaces.  As a librarian, I am curious as to how Second Life can be used to promote digital collections, and upon researching, I have found that various libraries already exist within Second Life.

As we are looking at CLEM (community, literature, examples, models) this week, I conclude that learning more about Second Life and 3D virtual learning spaces fit this description I have created:


C: I have found a Google+ community (Seanchai Libraries) and an education Wiki that has been created to support people learning/working with Second Life.

L: The blogs is more extensions of the wiki page but several excellent peer-reviewed journal articles have been written, which I will reference in my posts dedicated to my learning journey about Second Life.

E: Various videos have been created in YouTube about Second Life, and even full lectures have been recorded in virtual class rooms. has several articles and videos created by educators about Second Life, and how they use it in their practise.

M: Forums about the use of Second Life in education are useful for finding ideas and how these ideas have been organised before putting it live in Second Life. Technically, I won’t venture as far as learning to code within Second Life but I am interested to know in what language was used to create the world. Linden Scripting Language was created by Linden Labs (creators of Second Life) and it is largely based on Java and C. (Samanthi is learning to code for her activity, and she might be interested in the coding side of things if she was to investigate Second Life). The coding templates for Second Life is mainly tutorials in the Second Life wiki, and some videos are also embedded within the wiki.


Riel, M., and Polin, L (2004). Learning Communities: Common Ground and Critical Differences in Designing Technical Support. In S. Barab, R. Kling, & J. Gray (Eds.). Designing for Virtual Communities in the Service of Learning. Cambridge, MA: Cambridge University Press.


Back To The Future – NGL then and now

Networked and Global Learning is not exactly a new idea. In 1924, French teacher Célestin Freinet and a colleague launched their own version of NGL, using mail carriers to share information and interesting local artefacts about their communities, and exchanging toys, shells and stories written by their students. This endeavour evolved and adapted as the French postal system evolved to keep up with modern technologies, and by the time of Freinet’s death in 1966, has grown to include over 10,000 schools and 33 nations.

This early years of Networked and Global Learning was filled with wonder and anticipation as participants in the exchange waited for their packages.  Students learned from each others’ experiences, and I’m sure many long-term friendships were formed as questions were asked, and answers were written in return.

Forwarding a good half-a-century in time, and we are spoiled for choice when it comes to Networked and Global Learning. We do not have to wait for mail as email happens instantaneous. Physical mail seems to bring only advertising material and electrical bills. Surely I’m not the only one that feels nostalgic when thinking of handwritten letters? Célestin Freinet most probably would have loved to swap places with me if he knew how efficient modern day technology has made collaboration!

One thing however has not changed over time. To quote Al Rogers (1999):

“The true power of what we do in our classrooms depends less on technology, and more on what we do with the technology we have”

This short video called The Networked Student perfectly sums up 21st century learning. Our network is connected within multiple networks. My fellow student Nikki describes our small class of NGL researchers as bound by the common interest in that we all are striving to finish our degrees, even though our professions differ, and we’re doing it virtually. Thanks to Tim Berners-Lee, I can write this post, research the ‘how to’ of 3D virtual learning environments, browse my Google+ communities, and order from Pizza Capers at the same time. Not pizza this time, but ‘classic bolognese pasta’ .. which I’m sure the recipe was obtained from somewhere on the net?

As a student of NGL, I have experienced first-hand the interaction and collaboration that can occur within communities of learning. We often have different ideas and interests but we also have in common a love of learning. Whether that is in our professions as teachers and librarians or learners of a new endeavour, we do seek to build a knowledge sharing/exchanging network that we can call upon when needed.

How does me the student of NGL make sense of my learning journey, and my role as teacher – or rather educator in this instance since I’m a librarian? By building trust. I cannot impart my learnt knowledge and experiences on an uninterested audience with success. Think of the difference between hearing and listening. If your audience (students) does not trust your insight/knowledge, they will hear what you are saying but chances are slim that they will be listening – and in my opinion, listening is where a love for life-long learning is build.

I leave you with this thought by Goodyear (2014) –

“Trust can be infectious within networks. People are more likely to trust friends of friends than random individuals”.

Featured image obtained from